Jorge’s Cannabis Encyclopedia: Seed Germination
Cannabis seeds need only water, heat, and air to break dormancy and germinate; they do not need extra hormones, fertilizers, or additives. Seeds sprout without light in a range of temperatures. Strong, viable, properly nurtured seeds germinate in 2 to 7 days. At germination, the outside protective shell of the seed splits, and a tiny, white sprout (radicle) pops out. This sprout is the root, or taproot. Cotyledon, or seed, leaves emerge on a stem from within the shell as they push upward in search of light.
Break dormancy: Put newly harvested seeds in the refrigerator for a week or two to simulate winter. Remove and germinate. Seeds will germinate more uniformly because they all come out of dormancy at the same time.
Timeline for Germinating Most Seeds:
At 36 to 96 hours – Water is absorbed, root tip (radicle) pops through outer shell and is visible.
At 10 to 14 days – First roots and root hairs become visible.
At 21 to 30 days – At least half of seeds are rooted by day 21. Seeds not rooted by day 30 will probably grow slowly.
Once seeds are rooted, cell growth accelerates; stem, foliage, and roots develop quickly. Seedlings develop into full vegetative growth within 4 to 6 weeks of germination.
Seeds are Prompted to Germinate By:
Water: Soaking seeds in water allows moisture to penetrate the protective seed shell within minutes. Once inside, moisture continues to wick in to activate the dominant hormones. In a few days, hormones activate and send enough signals to pro- duce an initial root tip. The white radicle (rootlet) emerges to bring a new plant into the world. Once a seed is moist, it must receive a constant flow of moisture to transport nutrients, hormones, and water so that it can carry on life processes. Some seeds need lots of moisture to wash out the dormancy hormones in the seed coat, and if they do not get enough moisture, they do not germinate. Conversely, too much water deprives the seed of oxygen, reducing its quality or destroying it. If fragile germinated seeds are allowed to suffer moisture stress now, seedling growth will be stunted. Soaking most seeds in water for 12 to 24 hours is all they need to initiate germination. All the nourishment for a seed’s initial growth requirement is pulled from the fleshy cotyledons, or seed leaves. Water seedlings with low-EC (electrical conductivity) household tap water during the first week or two of life. Supple- mental nutrients are unnecessary and if applied in excess can disrupt internal seed chemistry. Some gardeners prefer to germinate seeds using distilled or purified water that contains virtually no dissolved solids.
Temperature: Overall, cannabis seeds germinate in temperatures from 70°F–90°F (21°C–32°C) and grow best at 78°F (26°C). Temperatures below 70°F (21°C) and above 90°F (32°C) impair germination. Low temperatures delay germination. High temperatures upset seed chemistry causing poor germination. Seeds germinate best under the native conditions and temperature ranges where they were grown.
Air & Oxygen: Sow seeds twice as deep as the width of the seed. For example, 0.125-inch (3 mm) seeds should be planted 0.25 inches (6 mm) deep. Adequate oxygen is un- available for seeds planted too deeply, and tender seedlings have insufficient stored energy to drive through deep layers of soil or crusty hard soil when sprouting.
Agricultural Astrology — Planting by the Moon
Ancient Babylonians and Egyptians planted and harvested based on moon phases in relation to geographic location. The premise is that plants grow better when planted during the appropriate moon phase.
Moon phases cause ocean tides to rise and fall. They also affect the rise and fall of moisture in soil and fluids inside plants. The moon phase influence is said to be the same indoors, outdoors, and in greenhouse-grown cannabis.
Cannabis gardeners who plant by the moon report faster-sprouting seeds that grow into vigorous plants. However, scientific evidence is lacking in regard to cannabis and other plants’ relationship with agricultural astrology.
Seeds need oxygen from the air to germinate. Growing mediums that are too moist (soggy) will cut off oxygen supplies and the seeds will literally drown. Cannabis seeds germinate best when moisture is between 60 and 70 percent.
Temperature to Kill Seeds
Compost, potting soil and other garden amendments can harbor seeds from unwanted grasses and broadleaf weeds. You can prevent unwanted seeds from competing with your lawn and garden plants by using a heat treatment of the right duration and intensity. The exact temperature needed to kill a seed depends on the species of plant it came from, but in most cases heating seeds to 140 degrees Fahrenheit is sufficient to sterilize them, reports Cornell University.
Seeds begin to die at temperatures above 108 degrees Fahrenheit, but require longer periods of exposure at lower temperatures. At temperatures below 140 degrees Fahrenheit some species are not affected by heat treatments. The most effective way to ensure that you kill all of the seeds is to heat them to a temperature above 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Seeds mixed into compost or topsoil require higher temperatures and longer exposure times than bare, unprotected seeds.
Compost piles that reach and maintain a temperature of at least 140 degrees Fahrenheit for at least two weeks will kill most seeds within the pile. It is important to turn your compost pile so that it composts evenly since the hottest part of the pile is at the center, says Texas A&M University AgriLife Extension. Seeds left on the outside or bottom of the pile may not reach a high enough temperature to thoroughly kill all of the seeds inside.
You can quickly kill seeds and harmful micro-organisms in soil using your kitchen oven. Heating your soil to temperatures between 180 and 200 degrees Fahrenheit will kill any seed in the soil after 30 minutes. The best way to heat treat your soil is to place it in a pan in the center of the oven. Make sure that the soil is about 4 inches deep so that it heats evenly. You can monitor the temperature of your soil using a standard oven thermometer.
Heating your soil above 200 degrees Fahrenheit can cause certain types of soil with a concentration of organic matter to release a foul odor. In some cases overheating your soil can also begin a chemical reaction in the soil that will release a chemical that is harmful to plants. Large compost piles in excess of 7 feet in height that are heated to 200 degrees Fahrenheit or higher may combust. The optimal temperature for creating compost and killing seeds is between 130 and 150 degrees Fahrenheit. You can monitor the internal temperature of your compost pile using a temperature probe. If your compost pile begins to overheat, cool it off using water, reduce the size of the pile or add a bulky material such as wood chips.