Jorge’s Cannabis Encyclopedia: Seed Germination
Cannabis seeds need only water, heat, and air to break dormancy and germinate; they do not need extra hormones, fertilizers, or additives. Seeds sprout without light in a range of temperatures. Strong, viable, properly nurtured seeds germinate in 2 to 7 days. At germination, the outside protective shell of the seed splits, and a tiny, white sprout (radicle) pops out. This sprout is the root, or taproot. Cotyledon, or seed, leaves emerge on a stem from within the shell as they push upward in search of light.
Break dormancy: Put newly harvested seeds in the refrigerator for a week or two to simulate winter. Remove and germinate. Seeds will germinate more uniformly because they all come out of dormancy at the same time.
Timeline for Germinating Most Seeds:
At 36 to 96 hours – Water is absorbed, root tip (radicle) pops through outer shell and is visible.
At 10 to 14 days – First roots and root hairs become visible.
At 21 to 30 days – At least half of seeds are rooted by day 21. Seeds not rooted by day 30 will probably grow slowly.
Once seeds are rooted, cell growth accelerates; stem, foliage, and roots develop quickly. Seedlings develop into full vegetative growth within 4 to 6 weeks of germination.
Seeds are Prompted to Germinate By:
Water: Soaking seeds in water allows moisture to penetrate the protective seed shell within minutes. Once inside, moisture continues to wick in to activate the dominant hormones. In a few days, hormones activate and send enough signals to pro- duce an initial root tip. The white radicle (rootlet) emerges to bring a new plant into the world. Once a seed is moist, it must receive a constant flow of moisture to transport nutrients, hormones, and water so that it can carry on life processes. Some seeds need lots of moisture to wash out the dormancy hormones in the seed coat, and if they do not get enough moisture, they do not germinate. Conversely, too much water deprives the seed of oxygen, reducing its quality or destroying it. If fragile germinated seeds are allowed to suffer moisture stress now, seedling growth will be stunted. Soaking most seeds in water for 12 to 24 hours is all they need to initiate germination. All the nourishment for a seed’s initial growth requirement is pulled from the fleshy cotyledons, or seed leaves. Water seedlings with low-EC (electrical conductivity) household tap water during the first week or two of life. Supple- mental nutrients are unnecessary and if applied in excess can disrupt internal seed chemistry. Some gardeners prefer to germinate seeds using distilled or purified water that contains virtually no dissolved solids.
Temperature: Overall, cannabis seeds germinate in temperatures from 70°F–90°F (21°C–32°C) and grow best at 78°F (26°C). Temperatures below 70°F (21°C) and above 90°F (32°C) impair germination. Low temperatures delay germination. High temperatures upset seed chemistry causing poor germination. Seeds germinate best under the native conditions and temperature ranges where they were grown.
Air & Oxygen: Sow seeds twice as deep as the width of the seed. For example, 0.125-inch (3 mm) seeds should be planted 0.25 inches (6 mm) deep. Adequate oxygen is un- available for seeds planted too deeply, and tender seedlings have insufficient stored energy to drive through deep layers of soil or crusty hard soil when sprouting.
Agricultural Astrology — Planting by the Moon
Ancient Babylonians and Egyptians planted and harvested based on moon phases in relation to geographic location. The premise is that plants grow better when planted during the appropriate moon phase.
Moon phases cause ocean tides to rise and fall. They also affect the rise and fall of moisture in soil and fluids inside plants. The moon phase influence is said to be the same indoors, outdoors, and in greenhouse-grown cannabis.
Cannabis gardeners who plant by the moon report faster-sprouting seeds that grow into vigorous plants. However, scientific evidence is lacking in regard to cannabis and other plants’ relationship with agricultural astrology.
Seeds need oxygen from the air to germinate. Growing mediums that are too moist (soggy) will cut off oxygen supplies and the seeds will literally drown. Cannabis seeds germinate best when moisture is between 60 and 70 percent.
The best way to germinate cannabis seeds!
With this guide, we would like to explain to you, how to germinate a cannabis seed most successfully. There are three common methods of cannabis seeds to germinate. Properly executed, they will be successful in almost every case.
- Germinate hemp seeds directly in soil
- Activate cannabis seeds with water
- Germinate cannabis seeds in damp cloths
So that cannabis seeds can be germinated under optimal conditions, in all three breeding types, some basic rules have to be considered. Before we describe the methods exactly, we first want to talk about these basics; The first golden rule is for example, not to treat cannabis seeds with bare hands to avoid the chance of contamination with bacteria or fungus. We strongly recommend the use of clean gloves and some disinfected tweezers!
Germinate weed seeds – The quality of the water:
The water temperature should be around 20 degrees and have good quality. The quality of the water can be tested with a PH meter and an EC meter. Recommendation: Osmosis water or drinking water very debil (with little salts and mineral arm).
The ideal substrate to germinate weed seeds:
You can work with different substrates. The most common are earth (light mix), coco and rock wool. Even with the substrates, the soil and ambient temperature should be right. A light mix is specially adapted to sensitive plants such as hemp. Most mixtures contain nutrients and minerals for a few weeks, which the young plant absorbs when it needs them.
For Coco substrate, before working with it, you should test the EC content, as most Coco substrates have a very high value. To lower the value, wash the Coco once with mineral water (osmosis water).
Breeding for coco and rock wool is also referred to as hydroponic cultivation, which means that significantly more air circulation at the roots is created. But the nutrients that are then fed to his plants are more directly absorbed by them. The risk of over or under-fertilization is greater but also the expected yield. Breeding on hydroponics is what gardeners with more experience.
Required air, light, and temperature for germination:
In order not to endanger the germination capacity of the seed, it should be stored in a dark and cool place (6 ° – 10°).
Before the seed is germinated, it must not be exposed to light and the air temperature should not be below 20° C (68° F) nor exceed 30° C (86° F). Maintaining a temperature around 25°C (77° F) is ideal. For outdoor cultivation, it’s recommended to germinate indoors, letting the seedlings grow for a few weeks, and don’t set plants outside too early.
Method 1. – Germinate hemp seeds in soil
- Prepare material (fill small flowerpots with soil).
- Lightly moisten the potting soil with good water. (Too much moisture = mold and fungal danger).
- Place the seeds in a 0.5cm recess in the center of the pot. Make sure that the seed is transverse and not upright, this can affect the germination rate. Nature has not shaped the seed without reason oval. If you set the seed transverse, it will easily position itself properly in the soil after germination! When you work with jiffies it works something similar. The jiffy is only soaked in water until it swells apart, then the water is expressed again without crushing it until residual moisture is over. At Jiffy, the factory usually prepares a slight depression for the seed.
- Lightly cover the seed with soil so that no light can shine directly on the seed. Also with the jiffi one covers the seeds with a little material. Wet but not wet! Now pour no more that could flush the seed back up and the amount of water is also difficult to control.
- In case of too little moisture, we recommend wetting the plant with a spray bottle.
- Now put the plant in a safe place and depending on the variety and genetics can be expected in the next 36 to 72 hours with a first result. In some cases, it can take up to 6 days.
Method 2. Germinate cannabis seeds in a paper towel.
- For preparation, we gonna need two plates, some sheets of kitchen roll, good quality water as described above, and our seeds.
- Put two sheets of kitchen paper on one of the plates and moisten them with water.
- Put your seeds on the damp cloth and put two more kitchen towels over it.
- Moisten also the upper cloths. Runoff excess water that the wipes are only slightly saturated.
- Put the second plate on the other plate like a shell.
- Store in a dark place and check daily that do not dry out the kitchen towels and of course to see if the seedlings are already broken. Once it is germinated, a small white shoot comes from one side. Now the time has come, the seed can be placed in the substrate of your choice. Carefully remove the seeds with tweezers from the cloths and carefully place them diagonally with the small germ downwards into a prepared hole. Only so deep that the seed is slightly covered with soil (max 5mm).
7. Wait, wait, wait and then be happy.
Method 3. Germinate cannabis seeds in a cup of water
This method is particularly suitable for activating seeds that have been stored for a long time
The addition of hydrogen peroxide is suitable for softening the husk of the hemp seed. About 3 – 5 drops per 100 ml of water are sufficient.
- Prepare a cup of water at a temperature of about 12 degrees Celsius (54 degrees Fahrenheit).
- Put the seeds into the water for 12 hours.
- Prepare to plant the seed in a small flower pot. Exactly as we described in method 1, under point 3.
- After planting, cover the seed with the substrate and moisten again with water.
- After about 2 – 3 days, the germ should gradually see daylight.
Cannabis seeds do not germinate? These are the most common mistakes:
- The pH of the water is too high or too low. Regardless of the method used to germinate the cannabis seeds, the pH should always be between 5.5 and 6.5.
- The EC value of the water is too high, it should be below 0.8.
- The water temperature was ignored, it should be between 20 ° and 22 ° celsius.
- If you let the hemp seeds germinate into soil, it may be that too much water was used, the soil was fertilized too much, or that the seed was pushed too deep into the soil, or was placed upside down.
- The seeds were exposed to strong temperature differences during transport.
This information is only of interest to customers who live in a country where cultivating and cultivating cannabis seeds is not a violation of the law.