Quiver killer kush seeds

04. High Times – April 2017

52 Pot & Vets High Times April 2017 Obama signed it into law. I served 14 months on the Great Lakes Since 2012, veterans have also led as a seaman. Then I went to school to an effort to add PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) as a qualifying condi- become an electrician’s mate. I was tion for medical marijuana, which has resulted in more than a dozen updated assigned to Station Channel Islands state laws. This effort was based in part on the experience of nurse practitioner Harbor in Oxnard, California. While sta- Bryan Krumm [see Interview, p. 101] and others in New Mexico, the first state to tioned there, I started having episodes of allow PTSD as a qualifying condition, as well as on a mountain of scientific depression. Naval doctors started me on a research conducted in other countries. In Arizona, attorney Ken Sobel and cocktail of pills for headaches, depression nurse Heather Manus of the Arizona Cannabis Nurses Association presented and anxiety. Before I was discharged, I had this research to a judge, who ruled that a “preponderance of evidence support[s] pill addictions and a drinking problem. cannabis as a treatment for PTSD.” Within months of my discharge, I was fired Although countries like Israel, Canada and Croatia have acted upon twice and began to have family issues. I this evidence and created programs that deliver cannabis to veterans as part of was on a downward spiral and started to their benefits, the United States refuses to acknowledge this research. Instead, believe suicide was my only option. Then federal law still officially maintains that cannabis has no medical value Michigan legalized medical cannabis. My whatsoever. outside therapist pointed me in the direc- As a result, when the VA enabled veterans who live in medical marijuana Opioid-related over- tion of cannabis and helped me obtain states to use cannabis, it created a dose and suicide are my card and become a grower. With his common among vets. therapy and cannabis, I was able to kick the prescription drugs and the booze. I broke through. I realized there is therapy in helping others with cannabis. It was then that I began to heal. Cannabis saved my life. It gave me purpose and a means to help other veterans. Barry Richardson, petty officer third class, US Coast Guard I served my country from 1993–97 in the 82nd Airborne Division. While serving as a medical specialist, I was exposed to and trained to treat all levels of injures, both on and off the battle- field, from PTSD to bullet wounds. During service, I sustained injury and was prescribed large doses of opioids, making me a heartless, lifeless zombie. Cannabis replaced them all within one year. It’s my experience that cannabis creates community and that community can save lives. I encourage people to create cannabis-friendly community centers in their hometowns and bring a healthy, healing community together. Steven Jacob Lull, specialist E-4, US Army MICHAEL WHITER

54 Pot & Vets High Times April 2017 conflict. The US Constitution requires The question is simple: At 23 years old, I walked out of the that all citizens must be treated the Which is the healing VA hospital with prescriptions for same under the law. “Treatment by agent? Percocet, Klonopin and Ambien: geography” is inherently unconsti- tutional: All vets should feel secure Percocet for back pain, Klonopin that they will not lose compensation or pension benefits merely for using for anxiety and Ambien for sleep. cannabis—legal or not. Financial ben- efits are suspended only in the case Little did I know it would mark of felony incarceration, but they can be reinstated upon release. However, the beginning of an entirely new there are still far too many veterans living in states where access to medi- kind of battle—one with an enemy cal cannabis is limited or nonexistent. I was completely unprepared to The fact that so many of our veterans are not able to use a proven fight: prescription-drug addiction. therapy—one that thousands of Cana- dian veterans currently benefit from— It didn’t take long to develop an is a disgrace. As long as the VA fails to embrace this valuable medicine nation- all-consuming dependence on opi- wide, while continuing to dispense enormous amounts of pharmaceuti- ates, benzodiazepines and sleeping cals—a number of which have been tied to high rates of addiction, suicide medication. At 28, I made the deci- and overdose deaths—there’s plenty of reason for America to be profoundly sion to take my life back and detox ashamed! m off all the meds that had enslaved Michael Krawitz is executive direc- tor of Veterans for Medical Cannabis me. I tried desperately to get into Access. the VA’s inpatient rehab, but after repeatedly being turned away, I knew I was on my own. I locked myself in my apartment, stocked up on food, water and marijuana, and gave my girlfriend my car keys. Seizures, sleepless nights and severe flu-like symptoms lasted over a month. It was one of the hardest experiences of my life. The only substance I allowed myself during that time was marijuana. It gave me the ability to eat, get a bit of sleep, and served to alleviate my back pain and anxiety. It’s been nearly three years since I’ve had a drug prescribed to me, and I have marijuana to thank for turning my life around. I use marijuana almost daily to combat pain, anxiety and sleeplessness. If only the VA had been willing and able to prescribe marijuana from the start, how many lives would be different, better or even saved? It’s “high time” for a change. Pearson Crosby, staff sergeant, US Marine Corps MICHAEL WHITER

60 High Times April 2017 Beyond the Battlefield Cannabis provides comfort and healing for our military veterans. At Desert Bloom in Arizona, it also provides opportunity. Story & photos by Dan Skye Working in a grow op has been hugely therapeutic for Ricardo Pereyda (left). A er finishing his tour in Iraq, Ricardo Pereyda was from post-traumatic stress disorder. But he balked at the diagnosis. redeployed to Germany and became aware of changes in his behavior. “I was like, ‘No, no—not me! That’s a career-killer. I told you I couldn’t sleep!’ So they gave me a bunch of Valium, and that’s Something was wrong. He was in a constant state of aggrava- what I used the whole time I was in Germany.” tion and couldn’t sleep. Negative thoughts filled his head. When he returned to the States, Pereyda was stationed at Pereyda had served in the Military Police Corps of the Fort Huachuca in southern Arizona—and his mental state dete- US Army, part of a quick-reaction force that conducted IED riorated further. He was surrounded by people who had ridden sweeps, provided convoy security, and escorted VIPs and desks and dodged deployment. “I was angry,” he says, “and I “high-value” individuals. “It was a rough deployment,” Pereyda was losing all military bearing.” admits. “In addition to combat, we lost an individual to a heart attack before we even got to the Iraq theater. And at the end of Pereyda was placed on the temporary-disability retirement my tour, a 19-year-old private committed suicide in his bunk.” list. For the next three years, he was treated for severe PTSD, undergoing myriad evaluations at a Veterans Administration Even before arriving in Iraq, Pereyda was already suffering facility where he was prescribed a host of pharmaceutical a fair amount of anxiety. Back home in Tucson, AZ, his brother drugs—which only worsened his predicament. had been shot, and he’d lost a close friend to a tragic accident. Once Pereyda was stationed in Germany, “I knew I really was “Whatever I said was bothering me, they had a pill for,” he off,” he says. At the Army hospital, he was told he was suffering recalls. “Amitriptyline, Xanax, Paxil… but worse was the PTSD

Forty strains High Times April 2017 are in produc- “It turned my life tion in the around, helping me Desert Bloom to be in the present. Cannabis facilitated gardens. my healing and allowed me to pursue my dreams.” He doesn’t categorically bash the VA, though. “Let me be clear: It was a safety net. I’m not sure I’d be here without the care I received. But I question the treatment. Doctors fill in boxes, obey protocols. I don’t think they have a real understanding of what vets have gone through. So their answer is always pills.” After he separated from the service, Pereyda was determined to forge ahead. No longer required to follow the programs of treatment that Uncle Sam dictated, he made a determined effort to wean himself off the prescription cocktail provided by the VA. He’d used cannabis in the past, but now he recognized it as medicine. He credits it with helping him move forward. “It turned my life around, helping me to be in the present,” he says. “Cannabis facilitated my healing and allowed me to pursue my dreams.” Pereyda now looks at 2009 as his pivotal year. He was introduced to Veterans Education Transition Ser- vices (VETS), an outstanding orga- nization at the University of Arizona that offers the tools and assistance diagnosis itself, which branded me as sick, a loser—damaged goods. I wandered in a haze until 2009.” Pereyda received his honorable discharge that year after being labeled “undeployable.” Others certainly recognized his worsening state. Con- cerned with his increasingly erratic behavior, his family had actually per- formed an intervention prior to his discharge, which Pereyda describes as “the best thing that ever happened to me.” Aari Ruben, Desert Bloom’s owner, crossed paths with Pereyda and readily hired him.

64 Beyond the Battlefield High Times April 2017 A tiered veg room nurtures the future medicine of Arizona medical marijuana patients. necessary for veterans to make the tran- A Healing Center Blooms in Tucson At the dispensary, a welcoming atmo- sition from service member to college As thousands have discovered, cannabis sphere greets patients. The expansive student to employed graduate. VETS is forms community: Traveling in activist waiting room includes a picture window; managed by veterans, spouses, depen- circles leads to connections. Aari Ruben behind it is the Desert Bloom “mother dents and current service members, and opened the Desert Bloom dispensary in room,” which nurtures the genetics for it enabled Pereyda to find direction. Tucson in 2013 with just three employ- the 40 strains currently in production. In ees, himself included. Three years later, the transaction room where the medicine Within six weeks, he enrolled in he supervises a staff of 55 who man- is showcased and purchased, a bright, classes and began pursuing a degree in age the dispensary and work in Desert breezy atmosphere prevails, with the wall public policy and management. In time, Bloom’s sizable grow facility, which was décor made up of cheery illustrations “so he was assisting with VETS himself, built out only a year ago. It encompasses patients can have a lighthearted experi- advising others who were making the a 15,000-square-foot indoor operation ence,” Ruben says. transition to civilian life. He also became and an acre of outdoor space, which a powerful advocate for public-health is being converted from a garden to “A lot of people can’t talk about can- and cannabis-law reform, wholeheart- greenhouses in order to take advantage nabis at work or with colleagues,” he edly committed to ending prohibition “so of Tucson’s abundant sun. An extraction adds. “We’ve tried to create a comfort- veterans, and all Americans who need lab is turning out concentrates, and an able space for them.” But if patients are it, can access cannabis without fear,” he edibles kitchen is in the planning. homebound or otherwise unable to visit says. the dispensary, Desert continued on page 130

68 High Times April 2017 The High Times Seed Bank Hall of Fame We’re excited to be adding another 10 seed companies to our illustrious list of the world’s best pot breeders. Behold the Cannabis Cup winners with prized genetics who are improving the quality of the cannabis gene pool with great and unique strains that stand the test of time. By Danny Danko and T.H. Caeczar Crockett Family Farms crockettfamilyfarms.com Since 2008, Crockett has been known for two incredibly popular cultivars that have won many awards over the past few years both for Crockett himself and others using his genet- ics: We’re talking, of course, of the Tangie and Strawberry Banana. These terped-out pow- erhouses have many people head over heels for Crockett’s crazy flavors in both flower and concentrate form. The now-legendary Tangie alone has won some two dozen prizes worldwide! Growing has been a Crockett family affair for three generations, and their empha- sis is always on a superior medicinal and connoisseur-quality end result. Some other varieties that have become very popular are Double Tangie Banana, Sour Banana Sherbet, Clementine and Citrus Sap. This is another seed company to keep your eyes on if you’re interested in tropical, fruity aromas and flavors. Be sure to watch for the Banana Pie crosses being released throughout 2017.

LOCHFOOT Harvest-time at Crockett Family Farms requires hard work and diligence.

70 The High Times Seed Bank Hall of Fame High Times April 2017 Star Dawg Top Dawg Seeds instagram.com/topdawgseeds The creator of JJ’s Nigerian Haze, Tres Dawg and the ever- popular Star Dawg is Mr. JJNYC himself, the breeder behind Top Dawg Seeds. Since the early 2000s, Top Dawg Seeds has been building its reputation for having access to legit and verified Chemdog-approved strains that just about any grower would love to add to their garden. JJ’s been creating new cultivars with rare, highly-sought- after clones like the Chem D, Chem 91, Nigerian Silk, Legend OG and other rare classics like the Mango Haze, Kali Mist and Strawberry Cough—and we can’t neglect to mention Money Mike and the super-popular I-95 crosses he and JJ have been working on. With the soaring demand for Top Dawg Seeds, expect to see these Chem cultivars in more places than ever! If you like those chlorine-bleach-and-Ajax, sour-halitosis-morning-breath, garlicky gas-station terps, you’re in for a treat! “I would like to thank JoeB, PBud, Chemdog, the Weasel, SkunkVA, SI Pete, Money Mike, High Times and everyone in the Chem Family who preserved and shared the Chem lines. Without your contributions, this wouldn’t be possible for me. Chem Family Forever!” JJNYC Schlemons Swamp Boys Seeds Tina Danza swampboysseeds.com Swamp Boys Seeds is a successful collabora- tion between Cornbread The Source Genetics instagram.com/tharealogkushman Ricky and Krome, two old ThaRealOGKushman of the Source Genetics has been growing and breeding cannabis on the West Coast on and friends from Florida. These off for over 20 years… one of his earliest breeding projects being a Skunk #1 x Super Skunk cross when he was only 17! creative breeders have Over the years, he’s developed a keen eye for keepers and a highly selective strategy for finding incredible breeding undeniably made today’s lines that he uses to create elite hand-picked seeds. cannabis community a The Source Genetics debuted in 2013. A year later, they won first place for Best Indica at the Cannabis Cup with better place, chiefly by Cookie Monster, and then another two awards in 2015: third place for Best Hash with Gluekie Monster, and first sharing two legendary place for Best Sativa (in NorCal!) with the amazing lemon- citrus bomb called Schlemons. 2017 will see the release of strains: Triangle Kush and a few gems from ThaRealOGKushman’s vault, such as the Cookie Monster, which he’ll finally be making available to The White. the public. Keep your eyes peeled and pick up a pack of seeds when that happens so you don’t miss out on another Since relocating to California, the Swamp Boys have been consistently potential Cup winner! discovering new genetics, combining their tried-and-true strains with some of the newer varieties to create innovative and unique standout cultivars. Notable strains attributed to Swamp Boys Seeds (either created or selected) include McFly White Fire #3, Trigerian, Nookies, Blockhead, Mojito, Rogan and Tina Danza. Their current project consists of six crosses with their Georgia Pine male (Killer Queen G-13 x William’s Wonder) and six with their Orange Blossom Trail (Old Florida Orange Skunk). Keep your eyes peeled for the new Nigerian crosses that are being released. If you didn’t like Haze before, you might change your mind when you see what’s coming out soon!

72 The High Times Seed Bank Hall of Fame High Times April 2017 Bodhi Seeds Goji OG instagram.com/PlantMoreSeeds Bodhi Seeds have been incredibly consistent for many years when it comes to producing high-quality seeds and cultivars. Most breeders can’t hold a flame to Bodhi and the level he’s at when it comes to selections: Many consider him among the top five breeders to date. Some of the males he’s selected for his breeding projects have included the Appalachia (Tres Dawg x Green Crack) and an 88 G-13 x Hash Plant cross that’s been producing nothing but superior A-grade genetics with intense effects, incredible aromas and unique flavor profiles. Some of Bodhi’s most popular strains include the Goji OG, Sunshine Daydream, Sunshine #4, Snow Lotus and Red-Eye Jedi, but there are so many more we could name. If you don’t have any Bodhi Seeds in your seed vault, mother-plant quiver or personal head-stash grow, you’re definitely missing out. Grape Stomper White Cashmere Gage Green Group Aficionado Seeds gagegreen.org aficionadoseeds.com Since their first release with Attitude Seed Bank in 2010, Gage Green Group (GGG) has Mean Gene and Leo Stone started Aficionado Seeds been slowly building a demand for their gear from growers in the know. Their Mendo in 2013, primarily as a way of preserving old-school Breath boasts the biggest popularity to date, but you can’t go wrong with anything genetics and the old way of doing things in the Emer- they produce, including their incredible recent Cannabis Cup winner Grape Stomper. ald Triangle. Prior to that, they spent over 20 years Founders Keyplay and M4k started the group in a sincere attempt to improve the can- customizing strains for private clients. Their rare genet- nabis gene pool with their natural breeding techniques, including selecting only the ics, such as the Chemdawg Special Reserve, Cherry finest cultivars to ensure the highest quality. Limeade, Nubia and Black Lime Reserve, have taken home over a dozen awards in various competitions “We at Gage Green Group will expand our repertoire this year with a new line of thus far, with others sure to follow in the future. championship genetics. Our new explorations will involve many Hazes and distinct landraces in order to diversify the already exceptional expression of Gage Green Genet- As a premium artisanal brand, their seeds do come ics. As usual, we’ll be incorporating heirloom clones that meet our high standards. We with a premium designer price tag attached. The team continue to revitalize world-class clones, such as the OGKB, through living soil and at Aficionado breed small batches, so everything is beneficial farming practices so that our champions will be pure and unhindered by ultra-limited-edition and highly exclusive. They also chemicals. After decades of working with pure, natural methods, our quest for miracu- breed specifically for the smokers, because those are lous herb has only just begun!” Gage Green Group the people who ultimately create the demand—not the growers. Their 2016 menu includes the Legend of Mandlebrot Special Memorial Release, dedicated to a revered and recently departed Emerald Triangle breeder. With lots of careful selection and testing going into their work, you can pretty much guarantee that whatever you get from Aficionado Seeds will be flawless.

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74 The High Times Seed Bank Hall of Fame High Times April 2017 3rd Generation Family/Terp Hogz (Dying Breed Seeds) instagram.com/__Zkittlez__ This collective of farmers from Northern California have decades of experience and the strains to prove it, racking up dozens of awards over the last few years. They made their name with the indica-dominant Zkittlez strain, which has won many prizes for flowers and concentrates due to its unique tropical- candy flavor and uplifting buzz. This crew is also known for their OG Eddy Lepp strain and the inimitable Rosé with the flavor and fragrance of berries and flowers. The trichome production and terpene profiles of these varieties make them ideal for con- centrate production. Two new strains called the OZ Kush and Hot Lixz, both released in 2015, also helped propel the 3rd Gen Fam to prominence in the eyes of growers and smok- ers. If you’re on a “terp quest” and pheno- hunting for some unique, sweet-and-fruity aromas and flavors, you’ll find what you’re looking for in a pack of beans from this reli- able group of breeders. “We make exotic strains for the exotic grower. With over 20 High Times Cannabis Cup awards since 2012, we have the strains you should be growing!” —Exotic Genetix Cinderella 99 Exotic Genetix exoticgenetix.com Brothers Grimm Seeds Exotic Genetix started up in 2008 and have brothersgrimmseeds.com dominated the last decade with some phe- This induction has been a long time coming! Originally founded in 1996, Brothers Grimm nomenal strains. Much of their success has became known for strong and stable strains. When they shut down in 2002 due to security con- come from their Kimbo Kush and Cookies cerns, the original Cinderella 99 seed stock was quickly depleted and became unavailable until and Cream. If it wasn’t for the man known as their recent resurrection in 2016. During the dozen or so years in between, the C-99 became “Backwood Country Grower” somewhere up more than just popular—it reached cult status as the holy grail of indoor marijuana. in NorCal with the original F1 seed stock of the Alien line (straight from the person who Many attempts were made by other breeders to copycat the strain, but none ever hit the sourced it from Afghanistan), many seed mark. Mr. Soul decided in 2015 to retrieve his famous clone Princess and the cache of seeds companies wouldn’t be where they are today. he’d saved from Brothers Grimm in 2002. He grew the seeds to select a P94-generation male and then pollinated the Princess exactly as he’d done in 1999 to create the original Cinderella With 11 first-place Cannabis Cup wins, 99 seeds. Some other outstanding strains from Brothers Grimm are the legendary Apollo 11, seven second-place awards and four third- Killer Queen and their newest sensational creation, Rosetta Stone. place wins since 2012, Exotic Genetix show no signs of slowing down anytime soon. With “Brothers Grimm are honored to be inducted! Keep an eye out, for our best is yet to come… ” their newest release of The Cube (Starfighter F1 x Starfighter IX2) and several new Cube Mr. Soul and Duke Diamond crosses, expect to see many growers in 2017 pumping out some serious heat!

Cookies and Cream

80 The High Times Seed Bank Hall of Fame High Times April 2017 Previous Hall of Fame Inductees Next Generation Seed Company Dutch Passion 2007: The First 10 High Bred Seeds (plus five pioneers no longer in business) Subcool Seeds/TGA/The Green Avengers Sensi Seeds/Sensi Seed Club Flying Dutchmen 2012 Inductees Paradise Seeds Dr. Greenthumb Reeferman Seeds Cali Connection Soma Seeds Mandala Seeds Green House Seeds Resin Seeds Sagarmatha Seeds Dinafem T.H.Seeds (originally CIA/KGB) Magus Genetics Legend/DJ Short Chimera Seeds Serious Seeds Mr. Nice Seeds Homegrown Fantaseeds Esteemed Pioneers Emeritus Bonguru Beans Sacred Seeds/Cultivator’s Choice The Seed Bank 2014 Inductees Super Sativa Seed Club (SSSC) La Plata Labs Lowlands Weed/Seed Company Rare Dankness Positronics Karma Genetics Grand Daddy Purp Genetics 2009 Inductees Elemental Seeds BC Bud Depot Archive Seed Bank Big Buddha Seeds Loud Seeds Barney’s Farm Devil’s Harvest Delta 9 Labs Hortilab Seeds DNA Genetics MTG Seeds m Vancouver Island Seed Company

April 2017 High Times 83 BLACKOUT Why the racist legacy of the War on Drugs still persists in the legal marijuana industry— and what we can do to end it. By Josiah Hesse DEEEPBLUE In states that have legalized marijuana, those with capital, con- Over the last year, a handful of black entrepreneurs have been nections and a clean record typically find themselves welcomed entering the industry, but their numbers remain low. A recent into the booming market—even those clearly seeking to swell their report by BuzzFeed calculates that of the 3,200 to 3,600 dispensa- bank accounts off a product they wouldn’t have dared to associate ries in the United States, less than 1 percent are black-owned. So with just a few years ago. At the same time, many people of color is the industry’s lack of racial diversity indicative of institutional who have been growing, selling or enjoying marijuana for years racism, or just a malignant legacy of the War on Drugs? find the green door of opportunity slammed in their face. It’s well documented that racial minorities suffer a far greater “Being an entrepreneur is crazy, no matter what,” says Wanda number of arrests and convictions for marijuana offenses than do James, co-owner of the Simply Pure dispensary in Denver. “But whites, despite using cannabis at roughly the same rate. Dubbed then you add in cannabis, and you’re dealing with no clear-cut the “New Jim Crow” by author Michelle Alexander, this sys- rules—it’s expensive, it’s labor-intensive, and it’s legally ridic- temic problem has crippled African-American communities both ulous. All that, along with the law-enforcement issues, is why economically and socially, seriously limiting their potential for you’re not seeing many people of color in the industry.” upward mobility. And this dynamic continues to play out even in the post-legalization world, where, in many cases, minorities are For a while, James helmed the only black-owned marijuana still prosecuted at a vastly disproportionate rate for a substance business in the city. Though she’s proud of being a pioneer, “being that white people now make millions growing and selling. the only one is a start—but it’s not a positive thing,” she points out.

84 Blackout High Times April 2017 “It’s rare, but there are people of color” picking cotton for free, and marijuana was consultants and experts to comply with RAPIDEYE in the industry, says Professor Piff, a half- the excuse—that was a big reason why I all the regulations. Most states will justify black, half-Korean extract artist in Denver. got involved in this.” the high barriers to entry as weeding out “But it’s more on the labor side, like trim- those who are not ‘serious’—but it’s really ming or budtending, not on the higher James and her brother were raised sep- just another example of our pay-to-play end of extractions or being a growmas- arately. She grew up in a middle-class crony-capitalist system.” ter”—or part of the ownership. home, earned a college degree and would later serve on President Obama’s National As Malcolm Gladwell’s book Blink: “It’s definitely harder” to be a success- Finance Committee. Her brother, on the The Power of Thinking Without Thinking ful black person in the marijuana busi- details, studies have shown that racist sen- ness, says Ronnie Weir, a Rastafarian “The largest obstacle timents can exist even in the most pro- who worked his way up from trimming to minorities being gressive-minded people, influencing their to running his own bubble-hash opera- owners, investors or behavior in ways they aren’t conscious of. tion. “When you’re working in an industry directors in the industry Such unconscious bias could explain why that’s predominantly white, you feel pres- is a lack of capital—both legislators insert provisions banning any- sure and tension in the environment. A lot financial and political.” one with a drug felony (including mari- of these people haven’t been around a lot juana) from working in the industry. But of black people—so you feel yourself tak- other hand, was raised in a poor section whatever the reason, and despite the fact ing on a stigma.” of Dallas. that their former “crime” is no longer ille- gal, those who have been victims of the Weir says that, as rare as it is to find “As a kid at the University of Colorado, War on Pot remain branded as criminals. people of color in the industry, it’s even we would sit on the steps of Libby Hall rarer to find people who have spent their and roll joints,” James recalls. The campus “These politicians are worried about whole lives in poor neighborhoods, segre- police “would come by and say, ‘Hey, put their constituents thinking they let things gated from the wealth, privilege and secu- that away.’ Getting high with my friends run amok with legalization—and losing rity of white communities. Both James and that were studying law and medicine—we their job,” says Jesce Horton, chairman of Piff grew up in military families, which didn’t feel like we were breaking the law. the Minority Cannabis Business Associa- afforded them a good education and the We never thought about being arrested. tion. “Without knowing a lot, they make opportunity to travel the world, exposing When I met my brother and heard his easy connections, thinking anyone who is them to a variety of cultures and languages. story, it reminded me that there really are a felon is more likely to go and sell to the Similarly, as a teenager, Weir relocated two Americas.” illegal market.” from Central Denver to affluent Boulder, where he was surrounded by white kids And that economic split between the This tendency to see anyone convicted who’d been encouraged to dream big and haves and have-nots didn’t disappear with of growing, selling or possessing mari- conquer the world since childhood. the advent of legalization. juana before legalization as a permanently branded “criminal” is more than just a law- And as talented and exceptional as “The largest obstacle to minorities enforcement problem. It has also skewed all three are, they could have seen their being owners, investors or directors in the the way people perceive the plant itself. promising careers nipped in the bud industry is a lack of capital—both finan- if they’d been busted for weed prior to cial and political,” Shaleen Title notes. “The fact that minorities have been tar- legalization. “Most states require tremendous licens- geted and jailed for marijuana means that ing and application fees before a busi- many of them have only seen the detri- The Ganja Glass Ceiling ness can even get up and running, let ment to their communities from canna- “The greatest barrier to minorities work- alone the finances required to pay lawyers, bis,” Horton says. “They haven’t seen the ing in the industry are restrictions pre- benefits. Black elderly and black church- venting individuals with a criminal goers still have more of a Reefer Madness record—particularly those involved in the view of cannabis.” sale or production of marijuana—from participating in the industry,” says Shaleen “Cannabis has been used as a way to Title, a founding board member of the harass people of color and put them in Minority Cannabis Business Association. prison,” says James. “The fear of getting “It is shameful, and sadly ironic, to con- involved in the industry is high. Some tinue punishing people for an activity that don’t believe the cops aren’t going to was previously illegal by preventing them arrest them.” from doing that exact same activity now that it’s legal.” Which is a shame, considering the deep love and respect that many people of color Wanda James has had the rare oppor- have for marijuana. tunity of seeing both sides of this divide. She’s now a successful cannabis entrepre- For Professor Piff, it was the death of neur, but her life was deeply scarred by his father from colon cancer that led him the War on Pot when her brother was sen- to research medical cannabis. As a Ras- tenced to 10 years on a marijuana charge tafarian, Weir takes pride in the purity of in Texas—four years of which were spent his bubble hash. And James sees canna- picking cotton as an unpaid laborer. bis as a possible economic life raft for her community. So you can be sure they’re all “The judge wanted to teach him a les- holding themselves to a higher standard. son,” James says. “A 17-year-old black kid “We take a tremendous pride in our store,” James says. “This isn’t just another job or another business for us.”

ACQUISITION OF LIVE CANNABIS SEEDS IS ILLEGAL IN THE UNITED STATES | PAYABLE IN US DOLLARS FROM ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD

86 Blackout High Times April 2017 Unfortunately, not everyone selling can- “When I met my services, legal services to address barri- nabis shares their passion for the plant. brother and heard his story, it reminded High Country Healing “There are a lot of people [in the indus- me that there really try] with no experience with marijuana— are two Americas.” ers to reentry [for formeorffecrosnthviiscltosc]a, taionndin they’ve never planted a seed or trimmed a linkages to medical careAflomracaonmd amnuotnhie-r in plant—but they get to manage the compa- bipartisan support. ties disproportionately affectedSilbveyrpthaosrtne. nies because they have the money,” Weir So the future of legalization does look federal and state drug policies.” Prop 64 says. also bans job discrimination in the indus- bright, and advocates are also address- try against those with a prior non-violent For example, in an interview with HBO’s ing the racial-justice issue. As Jesce Hor- drug offense. Vice earlier this year, John Seckman, chief ton points out: “Portland, Oregon, recently operations officer for LivWell, one of Colo- voted that some of the city tax from can- And, as mentioned earlier, there’s been a rado’s largest marijuana businesses, admit- nabis would be available to communities small but steady increase in the number of ted that he’d never used cannabis, didn’t disproportionately affected by the War on black-owned cannabusinesses nationwide. know anything about it, and had even Drugs, as well as expungement programs, Last year, Professor Piff landed a job with voted against legalization in the state. job training and education programs for Viola Extracts, one of the few black-owned those communities. And Ohio just voted marijuana companies in Denver. “I’ve never “It’s a product,” Seckman said bluntly, that a certain number of licenses would worked for a black-owned business before,” comparing pot to selling cars or any other go to people of color… So some progress he says. “I’d always worked for corporate commodity. has been made, but there needs to be a lot businesses making $7.25 an hour.” more.” It’s Getting Better Wanda James believes we’re seeing the Even if the racial disparities in mari- In California, the passage of Proposi- marijuana trade transform from an excuse juana arrests remain nearly the same tion 64 in November means that tens of to persecute minorities into a thriving post-legalization (see the sidebar), the last millions in marijuana-tax dollars will be industry that helps lift them out of poverty. few years have seen a tremendous over- earmarked each year for “grants to local all drop in marijuana arrests and prosecu- health departments and community- “More [minorities] are starting to look tions. Additionally, President Obama has based nonprofits supporting job place- at this as a career choice,” she says. “And commuted the sentences of an unprece- ment, mental health treatment, substance that includes ancillary businesses like dented number of inmates charged with use disorder treatment, system navigation black realtors, black security firms, black marijuana crimes, and legalization and publishers taking on marijuana ads… I’m other significant criminal-justice reforms hoping to see black-owned banks leading have attracted increasingly widespread the way in taking cannabis money. We are winning—or rather, I should say, we won. This battle is essentially over; we’re just negotiating the end strategy now.”

88 Blackout High Times April 2017 Does Legalization Really of Chicago’s South and West Side Denver Police Media Relations communities and raided the Help Minorities? homes of high school lacrosse Legalizing marijuana is an obvi- neighborhoods (largely made up Unit. “An important factor is how players known for hosting coke ous starting point for repairing and ecstasy parties after their the racial damage inflicted by the of racial minorities), marijuana a police contact is initiated. These games… Instead, when police War on Drugs—the idea being go looking for drugs, they look that if drug laws were designed arrests actually increased follow- types of contacts can often be in the ’hood. Tactics that would to unfairly target people of color, be political suicide in an upscale then abolishing those laws will ing decriminalization, despite complaint-driven, and officers white suburb are not even news- get rid of that racial oppression. worthy in poor black and brown Simple, right? arrests falling for the city overall. are simply responding to citizen communities. So long as mass drug arrests are concentrated in It’s certainly true that mari- Even in a fully legalized state reports without regard to race impoverished urban areas, police juana arrests have plummeted chiefs have little reason to fear nationwide over the last few like Colorado, juvenile Drug laws were or ethnicity. For per- a political backlash, no matter years, which benefits people of arrests for marijuana designed to spective, the Denver how aggressive and warlike the all colors. Following Washington, have been rising unfairly target Police Department efforts may be.” DC’s decision to legalize, arrests among blacks and His- people of color, responds to about for marijuana offenses dropped panics. According to a so legalization 500,000 calls for So whether the problem is from the thousands to the mere study by the Colorado should get rid service each year cops attempting to fill their arrest hundreds. Then again, when it Department of Public of that racial in neighborhoods quotas with easy targets, or comes to citations for public con- Safety, statewide oppression. Right? throughout the city.” citizens with bigoted views call- sumption, African-Americans still arrests for marijuana ing 911 on “suspicious”-looking make up more than 80 percent But in her best- people (à la George Zimmer- of those ticketed in DC. man), it’s undeniable that the fell by 46 percent between 2012 selling book The New Jim Crow, racial damage of the War on Meanwhile, across the nation, Drugs extends much further than the disparity in marijuana arrests and 2014—which is great. But a Michelle Alexander argues that the laws themselves—and that, between blacks and whites while legalizing or decriminal- remains significant and stubborn large majority of that drop was in the police have targeted minor- izing marijuana is a helpful and despite changes in the law—and important step, it’s hardly the end in some cases, the situation is the white community, particularly ity neighborhoods with drug of this terrible disparity. m actually getting worse. In parts among minors. The marijuana- raids for generations, despite arrest rate for white juveniles evidence showing there was just dropped by 8 percent; at the as much drug activity in white same time, it rose for Hispanic neighborhoods. kids by 29 percent and for black “From the outset,” Alexander kids by a whopping 58 percent. writes, “the drug war could But does this mean Colorado have been waged primarily in police are unfairly targeting overwhelmingly white suburbs children of color for marijuana or on college campuses. SWAT crimes? “Not necessarily,” says teams could have rappelled from Douglas Schepman of the helicopters in gated suburban

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92 High Times April 2017 Concentrated Cannabis Part I: Extractions 101 By Sean Black The advancement of cannabis concentrates is growing exponentially, leaving the community flourishing in a new world of potential. Join us in exploring what the future of the concentrate world holds. Story by Sean Black, photos by Ry Prichard Cannabis concentrates have been used throughout human A Brief History of Cannabis Concentrates history. Their current meteoric rise in popularity is due, in Concentrates have been around for thousands of years, in several large part, to modern technology and the ingenuity of cannabis different forms. Cannabis first appeared in China around 6000 consumers, which have jointly ushered us into the golden age of BCE as a food and textile source. Its use as a concentrate made concentrates. As one Michigan dispensary owner observes, “Con- its first appearance around 1500 BCE as bhang: cannabis ground centrates have taken over the cannabis community.” According to into a concentrated paste, then mixed with herbs and either ghee Rhory Gould of the Arborside dispensary in Ann Arbor: “Con- or milk, or left as a chewy ball and eaten. Somewhere around the centrated cannabis can generate up to 40 percent of our sales in 12th century CE in the Middle East, hashish—dark, malleable the form of wax, oil, hashish, kief, e-pens and edibles made with and resinous chunks of concentrated cannabis—became wildly concentrates.” popular. Hashish made its way along the trading routes through Asia and eventually Europe, becoming a highly coveted global Those are the facts. But exactly how and why this happened commodity. merits examination—and, most importantly, so does the question of what this means for the future of cannabis. Exploring the most In the United States, concentrated cannabis appears in the popular types of concentrates, how they’re made, and the history mid- to late 19th century in the form of “marihuana” tinctures. of concentrating cannabis can provide a better understanding of These alcohol and ethanol extracts mixed with other herbs the current market and where it’s headed. were sold as a cure-all for toothaches, impotency, typhoid fever,

April 2017 High Times 93 baldness and just about anything else the hippie counterculture. Jack Kerouac United States. Combine this with the hip- you can imagine. Whether they made published On the Road in 1957, inspiring pie culture of antiestablishment politics, their way to the public via doctors or a generation to leave home and embark free love and expanded consciousness, were peddled by hawkers and “snake-oil” on a journey of self-discovery. This led, and the result was a love affair with can- salesmen, people knew that cannabis was in turn, to what became known as the nabis. (Not coincidentally, High Times and a medicine, even if they didn’t under- Hippie Trail: a popular route from Europe its smuggler-founder, Tom Forçade, who stand the science behind it yet. Indeed, to Kathmandu through Turkey, Paki- started the magazine in 1974, played a role it wasn’t until the 20th century that stan, Afghanistan, Iran, India and Nepal. in fostering this interest in the concen- cannabis began to be demonized through Adventurous American tourists discovered trated herb.) government propaganda and appeals to a hashish mecca as they followed the racism, becoming federally illegal in 1937 trail through the different regions, each A Legal Cannabis Marketplace as a result of Harry Anslinger’s anti-pot with its own distinctive strains developed The 1970s and ’80s saw vast amounts campaign and the subsequent Marihuana over the ages. They brought back “new” of cannabis grown stateside for the first Tax Act. landrace genetics in the form of seeds as time, as farmers and smaller growers well as high-quality import hash, creating switched over to a more popular cash Hashish became popular in the US a willing and eager marketplace in the crop. Western cultivators embraced these during the 1960s and ’70s, mostly due to ancient genetics and began to develop the highest-quality cannabis ever seen. The dissemination of cultivation discoveries and techniques and new extraction meth- ods was mainly relegated to underground newspapers and books until the 1990s, when online forums, grower groups and chat rooms emerged. Then, in 1996, California passed Propo- sition 215, creating a safer, semi-legal framework under which cannabis could be grown. A newly legal marketplace gave concentrates a platform to be displayed and sold, albeit slowly at first. Growers with vast amounts of after-market mate- rial left over, such as trim and lower- branch buds not fit for sale, suddenly found great value in these for creating extracts. Better yet, with the amount of cannabis now being grown, there were also plenty of high-grade buds to extract with newer and more promising methods. Non-Solvent vs. Solvent Extraction Both dry-sieving and water extraction are non-solvent extraction processes. Extracting water hash is gentler and more selective, resulting in a more refined concentrate than the original hash from overseas. Import hash was made in places like Morocco and Lebanon by dry-sieving: beating the plants against a surface (such as a silkscreen), then collecting the trichome droppings and pressing them into slabs. Both water extraction and dry-sieving collect the coveted resin glands, but the older method also collected pistils and other bits of plant matter and foreign material that diluted the potency (kief typically has from 35 to 50 percent THC, as compared to water hash, which usually ranges from 50 to 70 percent THC). As a result, water hash—once a concentrate that only growers or those higher in the food chain had access to—soon became a popular and sought-after product.

94 Concentrated Cannabis High Times April 2017 Up until 2009, mostly water hash (or Hot-knifing on a stove, dropping onto hoo- Still, few people had one. It wasn’t bubble hash, as it came to be known) and kah coals, or just adulterating joints and until the end of 2010 that swing arms various kief products could be found on bowls were inefficient means of consum- had been replaced by glass and titanium dispensary shelves in the US. Some con- ing such a high-quality product. nails that sat right in the existing stem centrates made with solvents were avail- of a bong. Driven by the popularity of oil, able, but most were subpar and stayed glass rigs were crafted specifically for dab- fairly unnoticed. It wasn’t until 2010, bing, breathing new life into the world of when the first US Cannabis Cup was held glassblowing. Given this brand-new tool to in San Francisco, that these newer types of smoke oil with, and the introduction of a concentrates first appeared in a Cup com- more refined (and cleaner) product to the petition, thereby introducing “dab” culture public, the love affair with concentrates to a broader audience. began to boil over and change the can- Butane honey oil (BHO) and alcohol- nabis community forever. derived oils joined the more traditional The Art of Extraction forms of extracts and blew open the public’s perception of what concentrates The precipitous ascent in the popularity could be (solvent-extracted hash generally of concentrates has fueled the progress hovers around 80 percent THC, but some of cannabis extraction. Dabs are basically highly refined oils can reach upwards of the extracted and collected cannabinoids 98 percent). Previously, behind the scenes, of the plant (THC, CBD, etc.) as well as its some growers were making head-stash terpenes, or essential oils. These concen- oil with solvents like butane or alcohol— trates are refined and purified enough that but with lower yields and the lack of a Titanium nails helped usher a small dab on a hot nail leaves little to no convenient means to smoke it, it remained in the new era of dabbing. residual plant matter behind (i.e., no ash, mainly the stuff of legend for the larger as with a joint). cannabis community. Cue the Nail The majority of cannabinoids and In particular, the highly refined BHO terpenes are found in the trichomes, the and alcohol oils became popular due to Late in 2009, some ingenious tokers began glandular stalks and bulbous heads that their higher-THC content and strength. rigging bongs with a small metallic plate exist on the cannabis plant. Terpenes are the The only problem was how to smoke it: affixed to an arm that, after being heated, essential oils that give cannabis its different No matter what form BHO takes—oil, swung down below an inverted, bell- flavors and aromas and help to shape the moonrock, wax or budder—it becomes shaped intake bowl. Oil was then applied experience of the high. The terpenes and a runny liquid when heated, clog- to the hot plate and the vapor sucked in cannabinoids have different boiling points ging screens and pipes and rendering through a water pipe, giving the world its (i.e., the point at which they turn into a traditional smoking methods useless. first semblance of an oil rig. gas). This is why, before processing, it’s very useful to keep the can- Cannabinoid & Terpenoid Boiling Points nabis and its surround- ing environment cold, as During the purging process, which removes the solvent from the extract, it’s important to remember that under this will help retain the vacuum, the boiling points of cannabis’s various compounds drop significantly. For example, carophyllene’s boil- volatile terpenes, which ing point is 246°F at standard atmospheric pressure, but when put under full vacuum, it can drop to 109°F, creating can easily evaporate even a window for removing the solvent while retaining as much of the cannabinoids as possible. However, pesticides at room temperature. For and other chemicals can’t be removed by purging, nor can they be eliminated by winterizing or distilling. Indeed, this reason, many growers all elements and compounds present in the plant—good and bad alike—become concentrated during the extrac- immediately freeze their tion process, which is why it’s crucial that the source material never be exposed to harmful substances. trim or buds right after Compound Boiling Point (°F) Medicinal Properties harvest, giving rise to the term “fresh-frozen” —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— among extract artists and growers. THC 315°F Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidepressant “Live resin” is the term —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— for another extraction method that involves THC-A 220°F Sedative, antitumor, anti-nausea, antidepressant, anti-epileptic harvesting the plant and immediately processing —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— it while still “alive” in order to best retain the CBD 356°F Antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-seizure, chronic-pain relief essential oils before deg- radation begins. As the —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— rule of thumb for nearly all extraction methods CBN 365°F Analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-insomnia, sedative states: Your final product will only be as good as —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— your starting material. CBC 428°F Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, bone-growth stimulant —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Caryophyllene 246°F Anti-inflammatory, antidepressant —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Limonene 349°F Antidepressant, immunity booster —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Myrcene 334°F Antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Linalool 388°F Insomnia and chronic-pain relief —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Pinene 311°F Anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, stimulant —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Cineole 349°F Antibiotic, antiviral, stimulant, increases blood flow

96 Concentrated Cannabis High Times April 2017 Non-Solvent Extractions various screens with holes measured in also plays a huge role, as a good kief or Closer to the traditional methods of microns. The plant matter is submerged in water hash can result in higher-quality hash-making are non-solvent extractions. the freezing liquid and carefully agitated rosin than can be obtained from flowers, These techniques essentially harvest the to break off the now-brittle trichomes. delivering a more potent, dabbable con- trichomes via a manual separation process. These pass through the filter screens, with centrate. Rosin can be produced quickly, While not as selective as some solvent each bag allowing different-size pieces safely and on demand, making it a viable extractions, these techniques can provide to pass through, resulting in a slurry at alternative for people who want to enjoy the least-adulterated end product and will the bottom of each one containing full dabs but don’t have access to the profes- appeal to those people who want to remain trichomes, broken stalks and gland heads. sionally produced product. Creating rosin as “natural” to the plant as possible. This is Hand-stirring the cannabis with a wooden can be as simple as placing buds between because the use of solvents leaves behind spoon is gentler (and thus better) than parchment paper and pressing it out with residual amounts that need to be purged using a mechanical mixer or automatic a hair straightener. from the concentrate (more on this in a “washing machine,” resulting in a higher bit), whereas non-solvent extractions use grade of concentrate. Even the shape of Solvent Extractions dry-sieving—or only water—to extract the the ice cubes will affect how roughly the Solvents are liquids in which another plant’s resin. Here’s a breakdown of the plant material is treated. substance is dissolved, thus creating most common forms of non-solvent hash: a solution. The various solvents have Carefully breaking up the collected mass Careful col- Stable shatter lection can can retain plenty of result in a mouthwater- terpenes and ing mound of can last a life- time if stored trichomes. properly. High grade concentrates liquefy when heated, making it difficult to smoke via traditional methods. Kief of trichomes to remove the water without different polarities and water solubility, The easiest method of extraction, kief is losing the coveted terpenoids and essential which can pull different combinations made by working cannabis over a screen oils takes a sharp eye and can make all the of compounds from the cannabis plant, to filter out the trichomes. Dry ice can be difference. Microplaning and sifting are affecting the extract’s color, consistency used to freeze the trichome stalks, allow- ways to gently separate and remove water and flavor. Some solvents can be flamma- ing them to break off more easily. A gentle using sieves, spoons and rasps without ble and explosive and should be used only working over the screen will produce a damaging the whole trichomes, thereby by professional extract artists in facilities light-colored kief. Too much agitation will retaining as much of their essential oils as with the proper equipment. Solvents can break down the plant matter enough to possible. “Water hash” refers to the process strip almost all of the cannabinoids from pass through the screen, darkening and by which the concentrates are made, cannabis while pulling less plant matter lowering the quality of the final product. while “bubble hash” and “full melt” refer than non-solvent methods, resulting in Different-size screens are used to separate to the end product. Bubble hash is water a very clean and pure flavor. Due to this full trichomes from broken stalks and hash that bubbles when smoked due to its selectivity, solvent extractions can have gland heads. high oil content; full melt is slightly more some of the highest THC and terpene refined, melting away without any plant levels. Highly skilled extract artists can Storage in a cold environment and residuals left in the bowl (or on the nail) further remove terpenes and other can- sealed package can keep kief light in color when smoked. nabinoids to create a nearly 100 percent with a sandy consistency. Improper pack- THC product. aging can cause oxidation and darken the Rosin kief, while warm temperatures will cause Rosin technology is the latest evolution Creating safe, high-quality solvent the resin to melt out of its casing and in non-solvent hash-making. To extract extractions also depends on proper purg- become a big clump. If extracted properly, “rosin” from cannabis, pressure and a ing. There’s a wide range of solvents used lightly worked kief from fresh material slight amount of heat are used to expel for extraction, such as butane, pentane, stored in a cool environment can certainly resin from the trichome glands. Here, can- hexane, ethanol and so on. Varying boiling rival the best concentrates in the world in nabis is put into a filter pouch and then points make some solvents easier to purge terms of flavor, but less so in potency. placed onto a slightly warmed press that from the final product than others. The squeezes out the extract. Higher tempera- following list provides a closer look at the Water Hash/Bubble Hash/Full Melt tures (180°F to 330°F) and more pressure three most popular solvents in use today. Water hash uses a screen and water as a can result in higher yields but can also carrier agent to separate the trichomes degrade the final product. The more heat Isopropyl Oil/Quick-Wash ISO from the plant matter. Very cold water, full that’s applied, the more terpenes become Isopropyl alcohol has a high polarity and of ice, fills a bucket lined with different- gas and escape. The starting material is water-soluble, making it one of the size filter bags whose bottoms consist of least-selective solvents. Using well-dried

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98 Concentrated Cannabis High Times April 2017 and well-cured cannabis can help decrease 20% propane, as the polarity of propane than others. Vacuum ovens adjust the the amount of chlorophyll and moisture helps to pull a slightly different mix of temperature as needed while also raising pulled from the material. “ISO oil,” as it’s compounds from the cannabis, leading to the atmospheric pressure inside, flattening commonly known, is created by filling a more complete extraction. and stretching the concentrate to create a vessel with cannabis, which is then more surface area. This allows for the soaked in isopropyl alcohol and lightly Dabs & their easier off-gassing of the solvent. shaken. The longer the mixture is shaken Consistencies and steeped, the more cannabinoids are The temperature settings not only help extracted—but so are chlorophyll, plant Depending on the ratio the solvent turn to gas, but also keep the alkaloids and waxes. Depending on the of cannabinoids and material viscous enough for the solvent to starting material and the quality desired, terpenoids, the tem- escape. Ensuring the complete removal of the cannabis is soaked anywhere from a perature used (as well as solvents while retaining the terpenoids can minute to a few hours, after which the sol- the amount of air left in be a delicate balance. Consistencies can vent is strained into a dish. The remain- the final product) deter- also be controlled by different tempera- ing solvent is then evaporated from the mines the consistency tures (anywhere from 80°F to 180°F), the extract in a vacuum oven by bringing it of the concentrate. length of the purge, and how much vacuum to its boiling point ( just under 181°F) for (suction) is applied. All of these factors several hours to a couple of days to ensure WAX: Dry and crumbly; control the ratio of cannabinoids and that all of it is removed, leaving behind a first dubbed “earwax” terpenes that remain in the concentrate. powerful oil rich in THC. due to the resemblance. Higher temperatures and longer exposure times can create drier concentrates, but Butane Honey Oil (BHO) BUDDER: Wetter than also lower terpene counts. Whipping the Already common in the fragrance and wax and often whipped final product over a low heat can produce a food industries, butane extraction spread into a creamy, peanut- creamy-looking budder or, if dried further, like wildfire because of the potency and butter-like texture. a waxy crumble. Bring that same crumble terpene retention achieved, as well as its back up to a higher temperature and it will relative ease of use. N-butane’s polarity OIL: Runny and viscous, un-aerate, flatten out, and become a liquid matches very well with the compounds like olive oil. or shatter, depending on the cannabinoid that people enjoy in concentrates. ratios. Many unstable concentrates will SUGAR: An appearance nucleate, with the oxidized terpenes (now Stuffing a long column with cannabis, like wet sugar, with the called terpenoids) eventually separating wrapping a filter on one end and spraying THC crystals slowly from the resin. cans of butane to extract the cannabinoids separating from the doesn’t take much knowledge or skill, yet terpenes. Too many plant waxes and fats will also this method can produce tasty golden oil affect the final product’s consistency. Since testing at nearly 80 percent THC. How- SHATTER: A stable and they don’t add anything to the psychoactive ever, BHO extractions can be very danger- glasslike concentrate effects and can make dabs harsher, these ous, because all “-tane” solvents are highly that shatters into tiny plant waxes and fats can be removed via a flammable, and explosive compounds shards when broken. simple winterization process. This involves should not be used without the necessary filling a sealable vessel with solvent (pri- lab facilities and tools. SNAP-AND-PULL: marily isopropyl, methanol or denatured Looks like shatter, but alcohol), to which the concentrate is added Properly made BHO is extracted in stretches like taffy when and stirred to fully incorporate it. The ves- closed-loop systems that are essentially two pulled. Also called “sap.” sel is then sealed and placed in a freezer vessels with a column packed with can- overnight. All of the heavier plant waxes, nabis in between. The solvent stays sealed CO2 Oil fats and lipids will settle to the bottom, (and under pressure to retain liquid form) In order to harness CO for extraction, it leaving the oil suspended in the alcohol sol- as it passes from one vessel through the vent. The liquid is carefully poured off so plant material into the “catch vessel.” Hoses 2 as to not disturb the wax at the bottom; the return the solvent back to the first vessel, concentrate is then returned to the vacuum leaving behind a concentrated slurry await- must be kept in a container under high oven to remove the residual solvent, leav- ing its purge. This system not only captures pressure to create a supercritical fluid. ing behind absolutely pure cannabinoids the solvent for reuse, but also keeps the This fluid keeps the chamber full like a for consumption. Based on the ratios, the process safer by preventing it from encoun- gas, but with the density of a liquid as final product is either a glasslike shatter or tering the open air. it washes over the cannabis. CO extrac- a viscous, honey-like oil. N-butane has a low boiling point of 2 Looking at how concentrates are 31°F. Using dry ice to keep the solvent cold made provides a better insight into their and in its liquid form aids in a thorough tion units can be expensive, as they are fundamental properties and differences. stripping of the cannabinoids. Extract enormous in size in order to deal with the This knowledge will prove beneficial when artists purge the resulting concentrate in high pressures required. Due to the water selecting the types of concentrate you a vacuum oven to eliminate the residual solubility of CO and the low tempera- enjoy. Stay tuned for Part 2 of this series, solvent, while keeping the temperature in which we’ll further explore the subject, low enough to retain those terpenes 2 including non-cannabis additives, terpenes, with low evaporation points. Oftentimes, the isolation of specific cannabinoids, and extractors will mix their butane with up to ture used, the wash will produce a cold how best to consume your concentrates. m slurry much like a frosty. Its extremely low boiling point of –56°F makes purging the solvent from the concentrate very easy. A low-heat purge to eliminate the water content results in an extract that frequently has a runnier consistency, sometimes with a slightly orange tinge in color. Due to this final consistency, CO oil 2 is often used for prefilled e-pen cartridges. The Purge As mentioned earlier, different boiling points make some solvents easier to purge

The 2017 High Times Seed Bank Hall of Fame

We’re excited to be adding another 10 seed companies to our illustrious list of the world’s best pot breeders. Behold the High Times Cannabis Cup winners with prized genetics that are improving the quality of the cannabis gene pool with great and unique strains that stand the test of time. Compiled by Danny Danko and T.H. Caeczar

Crockett Family Farms

Since 2008, Crockett has been known for two incredibly popular cultivars that have won many awards over the past few years both for Crockett himself and others using his genetics: We’re talking, of course, of the Tangie and Strawberry Banana. These terped-out powerhouses have many people head over heels for Crockett’s crazy flavors in both flower and concentrate form. The now-legendary Tangie alone has won some two dozen prizes worldwide!

Growing has been Crockett family affair for three generations, and their emphasis is always on a superior medicinal and connoisseur-quality end result. Some other varieties that have become very popular are Double Tangie Banana, Sour Banana Sherbet, Clementine and Citrus Sap. This is another seed company to keep your eyes on if you’re interested in tropical, fruity aromas and flavors. Be sure to watch for the Banana Pie crosses being released throughout 2017.

Tina Danza – Swamp Boys Seeds

Swamp Boys Seeds is a successful collaboration between Cornbread Ricky and Krome, two old friends from Florida. These creative breeders have undeniably made today’s cannabis community a better place, chiefly by sharing two legendary strains: Triangle Kush and The White.

Since relocating to California, the Swamp Boys have been consistently discovering new genetics, combining their tried-and-true strains with some of the newer varieties to create innovative and unique standout cultivars. Notable strains attributed to Swamp Boys Seeds (either created or selected) include McFly White Fire #3, Trigerian, Nookies, Blockhead, Mojito, Rogan and Tina Danza. Their current project consists of six crosses with their Georgia Pine male (Killer Queen G-13 x William’s Wonder) and six with their Orange Blossom Trail (Old Florida Orange Skunk). Keep your eyes peeled for the new Nigerian crosses that are being released. If you didn’t like Haze before, you might change your mind when you see what’s coming out soon!

The creator of JJ’s Nigerian Haze, Tres Dawg and the ever- popular Star Dawg is Mr. JJNYC himself, the breeder behind Top Dawg Seeds. Since the early 2000s, Top Dawg Seeds have been building their reputation for having access to legit and verified Chemdog-approved strains that just about any grower would love to add to their garden.

JJ’s been creating new cultivars with rare, highly-sought-after clones like the Chem D, Chem 91, Nigerian Silk, Legend OG and other rare classics like the Mango Haze, Kali Mist and Strawberry Cough—and we can’t neglect to mention Money Mike and the super-popular I-95 crosses he and JJ have been working on. With the soaring demand for Top Dawg Seeds, expect to see these Chem cultivars in more places than ever! If you like those chlorine-bleach-and-Ajax, sour-halitosis-morning-breath, garlicky gas-station terps, you’re in for a treat!

“I would like to thank JoeB, PBud, Chemdog, the Weasel, SkunkVA, SI Pete, Money Mike, High Times and everyone in the Chem Family who preserved and shared the Chem lines. Without your contributions, this wouldn’t be possible for me. Chem Family Forever!” —JJNYC

Schlemons -The Source Genetics

ThaRealOGKushman of the Source Genetics has been growing and breeding cannabis on the West Coast on and off for over 20 years … one of his earliest breeding projects being a Skunk #1 x Super Skunk cross when he was only 17! Over the years, he’s developed a keen eye for keepers and a highly selective strategy for finding incredible breeding lines that he uses to create elite hand-picked seeds.

The Source Genetics debuted in 2013. A year later, they won first place for Best Indica at the Cannabis Cup with Cookie Monster, and then another two awards in 2015: third place for Best Hash with Gluekie Monster, and first place for Best Sativa (in NorCal!) with the amazing lemon-citrus bomb called Schlemons. 2017 will see the release of a few gems from ThaRealOGKushman’s vault, such as the Cookie Monster, which he’ll finally be making available to the public. Keep your eyes peeled and pick up a pack of seeds when that happens you don’t miss out on another potential Cup winner!

Goji OG – Bodhi Seeds

Bodhi Seeds have been incredibly consistent for many years when it comes to producing high-quality seeds and cultivars. Most breeders can’t hold a flame to Bodhi and the level he’s at when it comes to selections: Many consider him among the top five breeders to date. Some of the males he’s selected for his breeding projects have included the Appalachia (Tres Dawg x Green Crack) and an 88 G-13 x Hash Plant cross that’s been producing nothing but superior A-grade genetics with intense effects, incredible aromas and unique flavor profiles.

Some of Bodhi’s most popular strains include the Goji OG, Sunshine Daydream, Sunshine #4, Snow Lotus and Red-Eye Jedi, but there are so many more we could name. If you don’t have any Bodhi Seeds in your seed vault, mother-plant quiver or personal head-stash grow, you’re definitely missing out.

Grape Stomper – Gage Green Group

Since their first release with Attitude Seed Bank in 2010, Gage Green Group (GGG) have been slowly building a demand for their gear from growers in the know. Their Mendo Breath boasts the biggest popularity to date, but you can’t go wrong with anything they produce, including their incredible recent Cannabis Cup winner Grape Stomper. Founders Keyplay and M4k started the group in a sincere attempt to improve the cannabis gene pool with their natural breeding techniques, including selecting only the finest cultivars to ensure the highest quality.

“We at Gage Green Group will expand our repertoire this year with a new line of championship genetics. Our new explorations will involve many Hazes and distinct landraces in order to diversify the already exceptional expression of Gage Green Genetics. As usual, we’ll be incorporating heirloom clones that meet our high standards. We continue to revitalize world-class clones, such as the OGKB, through living soil and beneficial farming practices so that our champions will be pure and unhindered by chemicals. After decades of working with pure, natural methods, our quest for miraculous herb has only just begun!” —Gage Green Group

White Cashmere – Aficionado Seeds

Mean Gene and Leo Stone started Aficionado Seeds in 2013, primarily as a way of preserving old-school genetics and the old way of doing things in the Emerald Triangle. Prior to that, they spent over 20 years customizing strains for private clients. Their rare genetics, such as the Chemdawg Special Reserve, Cherry Limeade, Nubia and Black Lime Reserve, have taken home over a dozen awards in various competitions thus far, with others sure to follow in the future.

As a premium artisanal brand, their seeds do come with a premium designer price tag attached. The team at Aficionado breed small batches, so everything is ultra-limited-edition and highly exclusive. They also breed specifically for the smokers, because those are the people who ultimately create the demand—not the growers. Their 2016 menu includes the Legend of Mandlebrot Special Memorial Release, dedicated to a revered and recently departed Emerald Triangle breeder. With lots of careful selection and testing going into their work, you can pretty much guarantee that whatever you get from Aficionado Seeds will be flawless.

Cinderella 99 – Brothers Grimm Seeds

This induction has been a long time coming! Originally founded in 1996, Brothers Grimm became known for strong and stable strains. When they shut down in 2002 due to security concerns, the original Cinderella 99 seed stock was quickly depleted and became unavailable until their recent resurrection in 2016. During the dozen or so years in between, the C-99 became more than just popular—it reached cult status as the holy grail of indoor marijuana.

Many attempts were made by other breeders to copycat the strain, but none ever hit the mark. Mr. Soul decided in 2015 to retrieve his famous clone Princess and the cache of seeds he’d saved from Brothers Grimm in 2002. He grew the seeds to select a P94-generation male and then pollinated the Princess exactly as he’d done in 1999 to create the original Cinderella 99 seeds. Some other outstanding strains from Brothers Grimm are the legendary Apollo 11, Killer Queen and their newest sensational creation, Rosetta Stone.

“Brothers Grimm are honored to be inducted! Keep an eye out, for our best is yet to come. ” —Mr. Soul and Duke Diamond

Dragon Fruit – 3rd Generation Family/ Terp Hogz

This collective of farmers from Northern California have decades of experience and the strains to prove it, racking up dozens of awards over the last few years. They made their name with the indica-dominant Zkittlez strain, which has won many prizes for flowers and concentrates due to its unique tropical-candy flavor and uplifting buzz.

This crew is also known for their OG Eddy Lepp strain and the inimitable Rosé with the flavor and fragrance of berries and flowers. The trichome production and terpene profiles of these varieties make them ideal for concentrate production. Two new strains called the OZ Kush and Hot Lixz, both released in 2015, also helped propel the 3rd Gen Fam to prominence in the eyes of growers and smokers. If you’re on a “terp quest” and pheno-hunting for some unique, sweet-and-fruity aromas and flavors, you’ll find what you’re looking for in a pack of beans from this reliable group of breeders.

Cookies and Cream – Exotic Genetix

Exotic Genetix started up in 2008 and have dominated the last decade with some phenomenal strains. Much of their success has come from their Kimbo Kush and Cookies and Cream. If it wasn’t for the man known as “Backwood County Grower” somewhere up in NorCal with the original F1 seed stock of the Alien line (straight from the person who sourced it from Afghanistan), many seed companies wouldn’t be where they are today.

With 11 first-place Cannabis Cup wins, seven second-place awards and four third-place wins since 2012, Exotic Genetix show no signs of slowing down anytime soon. With their newest release of The Cube (Starfighter F1 x Starfighter IX2) and several new Cube crosses, expect to see many growers in 2017 pumping out some serious heat!

“We make exotic strains for the exotic grower. With over 20 High Times Cannabis Cup awards since 2012, we have the strains you should be growing!” —Exotic Genetix

Previous High Times Seed Bank Hall of Fame Inductees

2007: The First 10 (plus five pioneers no longer in business)